• Renu Joshi, Ph. D.

Study of Plants - Botany

Updated: Mar 16, 2018



The plant science or botany has been a prominent learning stream for ages and has evolved over a period of time in proportion to technological developments and advancement in research-based knowledge. Botany is a very wide topic and is organized into various branches ranging from history, internal and external structure, nomenclature, classification, geographical distribution and many others. Some of the important branches of plant science are described below.


Morphology is the structure and shape of plants is studied in morphology. Its sub-branch, “external morphology” is related with the study of construction and physical shape and external of the plants.


Anatomy also called as Internal Morphology is the study of internal structure of the plants.


Histology is the analysis of cells with the help of microscope is called Histology.


Cytology is the study of the cells at the microscopic level. This stream developed and matured after invention of the microscope with Robert Hooke called as father of cytology.


Plant Physiology pertains to overall functioning of the plants and includes activities like photosynthesis, nutrition, reaction to environment and even seed germination, among few others in this study stream.


The categorization of plants according to their interrelationship and other attributes is studied in Taxonomy and helps in plant recognition.


Ecology: This division deals with the study of surroundings and their effects o plants and vice versa. It includes the studies of pollution, soil conservation and soil erosion as well.


Plant geography /Phytogeography / Botanical Geography primarily illustrates how plants are distributed geographically and how they impact the surface of earth.: This division deals with the supply of plants on the ground reasons.


Genetics is an important stream of analyzing the heredity and variants of plants and animals overall. The laws of inheritance i.e. offspring resemblance or difference from that the parent are studied under this division.


Plant breeding is the branch of botany dealing with that the development and improvement of crops variety. improved varieties of crops.


Embryology: The male as well as female gametes of a plant fuse to shape the zygote. The zygote develops into an embryo with plumule, cotyledons, and radicle. When germination of seed takes place, the whole plant develops from all of these organs. These developments are studied in detail in embryology.


Paleobotany is the analysis of fossil plants. Plants that flourished as well as lived on the surface of earth several million years ago, but aren't existing and are found as fossils are studied in detail in paleobotany.  This branch provides significant inputs to understand earth, animal and environmental developments from the historical perspective.


Plant Pathology includes various kinds of disease of plants, their symptoms, causal agent as well as methods of control.


Elaborated details on various subjects is available in blogs and articles on this information portal and shall be a highly learning experience for the readers.


Renu Joshi, Ph.D.

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